Mayflower Plaque in Leiden

Mayflower Plaque in Leiden


Tag: Mayflower Chronicles by Kathryn Brewster Haueisen

Kathryn Brewster Haueisen combines a degree in journalism and a career as a pastor to write about “good people doing great things for our global village.” [Love that sentiment.] She’s a descendant of two of the Mayflower passengers and a grandmother to three young people with Native American heritage . When I learned that she’d written about the Mayflower journey and what happened when the English met the Pokanoket people, I just had to invite her onto the blog. Over to you, Kathryn.

Since Mayflower Chronicles: The Tale of Two Cultures was my first attempt at writing historical fiction, I attended a few workshops to hone my skills. One presenter emphasized repeatedly how crucial it is to visit the places we write about. I was researching the background of the story before COVID-19 became a dreaded reality. I love to travel, especially to England, where the Mayflower journey began for the English culture. As I learned along the way, the Pokanoket people were the other culture.

In 2017 I visited many of the popular London tourist sites and then inserted a bit of tour guide trivia into a scene set in London. I also ventured north to the village of Scrooby, located about 50 miles south of York, along the old North Road that connected London and Edinburgh. This is where the Mayflower story had its roots. At least that is where the story started for William and Mary Brewster, two of the central figures in my retelling of the religious and political events that serve as backdrop for the famous voyage.

I am twelve generations removed from this couple. Before becoming the spiritual leader of the Pilgrims, Elder Brewster served as bailiff at Scrooby Manor. Not much of the grand old manor remains today, but in the 1500s, it was a thriving stop over for royal messengers and high-ranking officials traveling between London and Edinburgh. The Bishop of York, who owned the estate, played a role in the Mayflower story.

There is little to see in Scrooby today, but the church where William and Mary married in 1591 is in good condition, still in use, and only a few yards across the lawn from the remnant of the manor. Walking around the church yard and village gave me a sense of what it might have been like for my ancestors to take their afternoon strolls.

I didn’t expect to ever get to Leiden, where the Brewster’s and several dozen other Separatists lived as refugees from 1608 until they sailed in 1620 . They left England to escape almost certain imprisonment and perhaps execution as religious heretics. They joined other English refugees in Amsterdam for a year then moved down the road to Leiden in 1608. However, in 2018 my husband wanted to sail on a genealogy research cruise from England to New York. I eagerly agreed, as long as we built in time to also see Cambridge and Leiden.

William studied briefly at Peterhouse, part of Cambridge University. Though I couldn’t go inside Peterhouse where he lived and studied, I wandered around the grounds and took a tour of the Cambridge University system. What I learned on that tour helped immensely in writing about that part of William’s life.

I fell in love with Leiden. Many details in the completed manuscript are the result of an afternoon I spent at the American Pilgrim Museum , run by renowned historian and Pilgrim expert, Dr. Jeremy Bangs. I walked the same places the Pilgrims did. I was astonished to discover a plaque over an archway of an alley named after William Brewster. The plaque states this was the site of the Brewster home and William’s printing business. He got in trouble with the authorities for publishing anti-Established Church of England documents and smuggling them back into England. Strolling around the University of Leiden, I envisioned William, and his dear friend Pastor John Robinson, walking there and perhaps discussing their plans to establish a new religious colony.

My goal in writing this book was to include the perspective of the Natives who encountered the new English settlers wandering around the shore of Cape Cod after they arrived in November. To research that part of the story I visited Plimouth Plantation in Massachusetts. The living museum recently changed its to Plimouth * Patuxet, to honor the Native name for the place we know today as Plymouth. After spending a day wandering through the museum and both the English and Wampanoag villages, I had an eye-opening interview with the head of the Native village.

Before I signed off on the final manuscript, I told Green Writers Press Publisher Dede Cummings we needed another Native to review it. I’d already spoken with several Natives, and paid a Native sensitivity editor to review portions of the book but no one from the Native community had actually seen the entire manuscript.

A friend in Rhode Island put me in touch with three generations of descendants from the great Pokanoket leader – Massasoit Ousa Mequin . They corrected some of my misinformation and filled in gaps in my research. They then wrote the forward to the book. Of all the places I visited, and all the backstory I learned along the way, meeting this family remains the highlight of the entire endeavor. We are convinced our ancestors knew one another and worked together to ensure the safety and wellbeing of both cultures .

Today, we, their descendants, share this same philosophy. In the forward they wrote, “We truly believe that this book has been written in good faith and in holding to the renewing a dream that our ancestors aspired to, that both our people can prosper in this land in peace and fellowship .” Aquene (Peace), Sagamore Po Wauipi Neimpaug, Sachem Po Pummukoank Anogqs, and Tribal Historian Po Menuhkesu Menenok.

That workshop presenter was right. The best way to write authentically about history is to first visit places where it happened and speak with people who live there today.

Many thanks, Kathryn. I’m sure many readers will be fascinated with your novel.

For thousands of years two distinct cultures evolved unaware of one another’s existence. Separated by what one culture called the Great Sea and known to the other as the Atlantic Ocean, the course of each culture’s future changed irreversibly four hundred years ago. In 1620 the Mayflower delivered 102 refugees and fortune seekers from England to Cape Cod, where these two cultures first encountered one another. The English sought religious freedom and fresh financial opportunities. The Natives were recovering from the Great Dying of the past several years that left over two-thirds of their people in graves. How would they react to one another? How might their experience shape modern cross-cultural encounters?

The book is available now wherever books are sold, including www.bookshop.org, www.amazon.com, and the distributor, http://www.ipgbook.com .

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Visiting Leiden

Leiden is just 40 minutes from Amsterdam and as welcoming and charming a city today as it was when the Pilgrims moved there.

Steeped in history, the city boasts many historic sites, monument, alms-houses - and of course windmills! Plus there are over 28km of waterways to explore.

Located in a beautifully preserved house built ca 1365-1370 near the clock tower of the Hooglandskerk, the Leiden American Pilgrim Museum tells the stories of the founders of New England, the Pilgrims. Furnishings from Pilgrim times show aspects of daily life, while events involving the Pilgrims themselves are illustrated with a remarkable collection of sixteenth and seventeenth-century maps and engravings by such artists as Gerard Mercator, Adrian van de Venne, Adriaen van Ostade, and Jacques de Gheyn.

Named after St. Peter, the patron saint of Leiden, Pieterskerk was founded in 1121 and is mainly constructed in late-Gothic style. The Pieterskerk is associated with the Pilgrim Fathers, whose leader John Robinson, lived in the nearby Pieterskerkchoorsteeg (marked with a plaque). John Robinson is buried here, as are the physician Herman Boerhave and the painter Jan Steen (of Rijksmuseum fame). The church itself features a small exhibition on the Pilgrims in Leiden.

Leiden Mayflower Highlights

Leiden American Pilgrim Museum

Located in a beautifully preserved house built ca 1365-1370, the Leiden American Pilgrim museum tells the stories of the founders of New England, the Pilgrims.

Pieterskerk Leiden

The Pieterskerk has been a central monument in Leiden since the twelfth century. With almost 900 years worth of history, the Pieterskerk has been an important meeting place in Dutch history.

Museum De Lakenhal

Museum De Lakenhal presents an exhibition which sheds light on this remarkable journey, from their home country England, via the city of Leiden where they were in voluntary exile for 11 years, to the world of the Native Americans they entered and the colony they founded. In the exhibition, questions are highlighted, offering a range of historical and contemporary perspectives.

De Vliet

When the Pilgrims left Leiden in 1620 they passed under the Vlietbrug on their way to Delfshaven.

St. Louis Church

Before the Reformation this church was a stop for pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela.

The Burcht

An artificial hill, a motte, constructed around 1000 AD. A circular castle from the middle of the twelfth century stands on the top.

Walloon Church

When the hospital was still standing, Myles Standish, an English soldier who later joined the Pilgrims, was nursed here.

City Hall

Several Pilgrims were married in the City Hall, amongst them William Bradford and Dorothy May.

Blue stone

The blue stone in the middle of the Breestraat marks the centre of the city. In medieval it was the place where courts of law were held and sentences carried out.

William Brewster Alley

William Brewster lived and worked in an area of Leiden near Pieterskerk. Today the street where he lived is called William Brewstersteeg.

Jean Pesijnhof

Across the street from the Pieterskerk, the grand entrance to the Jean Pesijns Almshouse stands since 1683 where John Robinson’s house had been. A memorial stone is in the wall to the right of the entry.

Latin School

In Pilgrim times, Rembrandt studied here.

Lokhorst Church

Leiden's Mennonite community built the Lokhorstkerk in 1613-38 behind existing houses and expanded it in 1648.

Langebrug

Somewhere in a close on the Langebrug, Pilgrim James Chilton lived with his family.

St. Pancras Church

Although most Pilgrims who died in Leiden were buried in or around the Pieterskerk, a few were buried in the Hooglandsekerk, including a child of William Brewster’s, who died in June, 1609, shortly after the Pilgrims arrived in Leiden.

Not only were all wares coming to market brought here to be weighed, the landing in front of the Weigh House was the terminus of regular boat service to Leiden from Haarlem and Amsterdam. Here is where the Pilgrims first set foot on Leiden’s land.

Mayflower Escaperoom

With only 60 minutes on the clock and many difficult puzzles and riddles, the Mayflower Escaperoom is an exciting challenge for families, friends and colleagues.

University

The University was founded in 1575 and is the oldest university in the Netherlands. John Robinson took part in heated theological debates.

Charm and personal attention

Boutique Hotel De Barones van Leyden

Both at 'De Barones van Leyden' and at 'Huys van Leyden', the emphasis is on personal attention, convenience, style and relaxation. De Barones van Leyden is situated in a canal-side house on Oude Herengracht dating from 1644 and overlooks the tugboat port.

An intimate hotel right in the city centre of Leiden.

Boutique Hotel Huys van Leyden

The Huys van Leyden is an intimate hotel right in the city centre of Leiden

Between the two main Leiden shopping streets

City Hotel Nieuw Minerva

Both at 'De Barones van Leyden' and at 'Huys van Leyden', the emphasis is on personal attention, convenience, style and relaxation.

A magnificent view over the city

City Resort Hotel Leiden

City Resort Hotel has a magnificent view over the city

Business guests, groups, meetings and families.

Holiday Inn Leiden

Spacious design, versatile hotel Highly suitable for business guests, groups, meetings and families. Part of the largest hotel chain in the world, InterContinentals Hotels Group. This will give you the benefit of the high international standard guarantee for service and quality.

A wide diversity in hotel rooms

Golden Tulip Leiden Centre

The Golden Tulip (4-star hotel) and Tulip Inn Leiden (3-star hotel) are situated in a modern building situated between the city centre of Leiden and the Bio Science Park, about 100 m from Leiden Central Station and close to the A44 motorway to Amsterdam and The Hague. The city centre of Leiden with its historical buildings, museums, cheerful sidewalk cafés and intimate restaurants lies within walking distance. In 2014 the rooms, meeting rooms and restaurant were completely renovated.

Tripadvisor winner in 2015

Hilton Garden Inn Leiden

This hotel is the first Hilton Garden Inn in the Netherlands and provides that ideal mix between high-quality accommodation and excellent facilities at competitive prices for business travellers and tourists alike.

Very tasteful, listed conference hotel

Kasteel Oud Poelgeest

Landgoed Oud-Poelgeest is like a luscious still-life where many famous people have gained their inspiration to continue their life’s works and make them known to the public. Herman Boerhaave, Jan Wolkers and other well-known individuals have reached their inner selves here at Kasteel Oud-Poelgeest and gained their inspiration from all the splendour present at the estate.

Family hotel with spacious rooms

Hotel Mayflower

Family hotel with spacious rooms overlooking the water of the Oude Vest, one of the widest canals in Leiden, with historic facades. Right in the heart of Leiden city centre.

Right in the middle of the characteristic city centre

Hotel De Doelen

This pleasant hotel is situated at one of the most beautiful canals in all of Europe, Rapenburg, and it is right in the middle of the characteristic city centre of Leiden.

Van der Valk Hotel Leiden

Tulip Inn Leiden Centre

Luxurious villa in the city centre

Villa Rameau

Formerly the residence of the sexton of the monumental Pieterskerk Leiden, now a beautiful townhouse for a short stay in the heart of Leiden. After a thorough restoration, classic and design go hand in hand.


2. Gainsborough, Lincolnshire

Another centre of covert religious dissent was Gainsborough. Here a similar group worshiped clandestinely – drawn from the town and local villages and led by the Reverend John Smyth – possibly in the Old Hall pictured above.

But, in King James’ England (1603-25), pressure was mounting on Separatist congregations, with surveillance, arrests and imprisonment. The two groups decided to flee to religiously tolerant Holland.


Mayflower, Pilgrims & The Plymouth Colony » General Resources

Ancestry.com has searchable indexes database results and some digitized images are available with a fee-based subscription.

Original source: A book by Albert C. Addison.

Original source: A book by Henry Whittemore.

Original source: A book by Colonel Francis R. Stoddard.

Original source: Marble, Annie Russell,. The women who came in the Mayflower. Boston: Pilgrim Press, c1920.

An alphabetical listing of descendants of the Mayflower Pilgrims to the 5th generation. Information is given for each name, which may include dates of birth and death, name of spouse, children and parents. Not associated with the Mayflower Society.

A educational study guide for instruction on the Mayflower, Pilgrims, Plymouth Colony, Native Americans and much more. Contains original artwork. Written by Duane A. Cline, former Education Chairman of the General Society of Mayflower Descendants.

A brief history of the Pilgrims' sojourn in Leiden with several scanned images, maps & documents.

Plague commemorating the Mayflower Pilgrims on the Vrouwekerkplein in Leiden.

Pilgrim records from Leyden: guarantors, marriages, members of the Ancient Exiled English Church who became members of the Pilgrim congregation in Leyden.

The Mayflower Project currently covers the passengers of the Mayflower, and their descendants for several generations. In the future, it may be expanded to cover other early European settlers in that area.


Times of hardship

The life in this newfound city was not easy. At first, this was accepted, but as the years went by, and many of the original pilgrims got older, they started to find their living conditions intolerable.

Many of them had little to no educational background. That and the language barrier made going about daily life was difficult. Additionally, their now grown-up children were learning Dutch, refusing the “old ways”, and yearning for a different way of life. Their parents feared that their legacy was approaching extinction.

At the same time, the political state of the Netherlands was also becoming more unstable. There was a military coup, and the number of riots, military restrictions, and instances of censorship increased dramatically. Rumours of war abounded, as The Twelve Year Truce with Spain was coming to an end.

You can sense Leiden’s history as you walk around it. Image: Abuzer van Leeuwen/Supplied


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ESTATE: In the 1623 Plymouth division of land Richard Warren received an uncertain number of acres (perhaps two) as a passenger on the Mayflower, and five acres as a passenger on the Anne (presumably for his wife and children) [PCR 12:4-6]. In the 1627 Plymouth division of cattle Richard Warren, his wife Elizabeth Warren, Nathaniel Warren, Joseph Warren, Mary Warren, Anna Warren, Sarah Warren, Elizabeth Warren and Abigail Warren were the first nine persons in the ninth company [PCR 12:12]. He was one of the purchasers [PCR 2:177].

In the 25 March 1633 Plymouth tax list Widow Warren was assessed 12s., and in the list of 27 March 1634, 9s. [PCR 1:10, 27].

On 1 July 1633 "Mrs. Warren and Rob[er]t Bartlet" were allowed to mow where they did the previous year, and again 14 March 1635/6 [PCR 1:15, 41].

On 28 October 1633, "a misted that was granted formerly to Richard Warren, deceased, & forfeited by a late order, for want of building, the said misted was granted to Mr. Raph Fog & his heirs forever, provided the said Raph within twelve months build a dwelling house upon the same, & allow widow Warren so much for her fence remaining thereon as Rob[er]t Reeks & Christopher Wadsworth shall think it may be serviceable to the said Raph" [PCR 1: 18].

On 7 March 1636/7 "it is agreed upon, by the consent of the whole Court, that Elizabeth Warren, widow, the relict of Mr. Richard Warren, deceased, shall be entered, and stand, and be purchaser instead of her said husband, as well because that (he dying before he had performed the said bargain) the said Elizabeth performed the same after his decease, as also for the establishing of the lots of lands given formerly by her unto her sons-in-law Richard Church, Robert Bartlett and Thomas Little, in marriage with their wives, her daughters" [PCR 1:54, 2: 177].

On 5 May 1640 "Richard Church, Rob[er]te Bartlett, Thomas Little, & Mrs. Elizabeth Warren are granted enlargements at the heads of their lots to the foot of the Pyne Hills, leaving a way betwixt them and the Pyne Hills, for cattle and carts to pass" [PCR 1:152].

On 11 June 1653, as the result of a disagreement between Mrs. Elizabeth Warren and her son, Nathaniel, and a petition offered in court by Mrs. Jane Collier on behalf of her grandchild, Sarah, wife of Nathaniel Warren, the court chose four indifferent men to settle the matter of access to lands [MD 2:64, citing PCLR 2:73].

On 4 March 1673/4 Mary Bartlett, wife of Robert Bartlett, came into this court and owned "that she hath received full satisfaction for whatsoever she might claim as due from the estate of Mistris Elizabeth Warren, deceased, and John Cooke, in the behalf of all her sisters, testified the same before the court and the court doth hereby settle the remainder of the said estate on Joseph Warren" [PCR 5:139-40].

BIRTH: By about 1578 based on estimated date of marriage.

DEATH: Plymouth 1628. ("This year died Mr. Richard Warren, who hath been mentioned before in this book, and was an useful instrument and during his life bore a deep share in the difficulties and troubles of the first settlement of the plantation of New-Plymouth" [Morton 85].

MARRIAGE: Great Amwell, Hertfordshire, 14 April 1610 Elizabeth Walker, daughter of Augustine Walker [TAG 78:81-86]. She died at Plymouth on 2 October 1673, aged about 90 (probably an exaggeration) [PCR 8:35].

  1. MARY, b. about 1610 ( d. Plymouth 27 March 1683 "in her 73d year" [PChR 1 :250]) m. say 1629 ROBERT BARTLETT [PM 42] (date based on estimated age of children at their marriages).
  2. ANN, b. about 1612 (deposed 6 June 1672 "aged sixty years or thereabouts" [MD 2: 178, citing PCPR 3:1:40]) m. Plymouth 19 April 1633 THOMAS LITTLE [PCR 1:13 PM 305].
  3. SARAH, b. by 1613 (named in grandfather's will of 19 April 1613 [TAG 78:83, citing Commissary Court of London, Essex and Herts, DI ABW 41/186]) m. Plymouth 28 March 1634 John Cooke Junior [PCR 1 :29], son of FRANCIS COOKE [PM 144].
  4. ELIZABETH, b. say 1615 m. by 7 March 1636/7 [PCR 1:54 TAG 60:129-30] (and probably by 14 March 1635/6 [PCR 1:41, 56, 152]) RICHARD CHURCH [PM 105] (he shared mowing land with Mrs. Warren 14 March 1635/6 [PCR 1:41]).
  5. ABIGAIL, b. say 1619 m. Plymouth 8 (or 9) November 1639 Anthony Snow [PCR 1:134].
  6. NATHANIEL, b. about 1624 (deposed 15 October 1661 "aged thirty-seven years or thereabouts" [MD 2: 178-79, citing PCLR 2:2:56]) m. Plymouth 19 November 1645 Sarah Walker [PCR 2:94]. (See WILLIAM COLLIER for discussion of her possible ancestry [PM 128].)
  7. JOSEPH, b. Plymouth by 1627 m. about 1653 Priscilla Faunce, daughter of JOHN FAUNCE (eldest child b. Plymouth 23 September 1653 [PCR 8:33]), daughter of JOHN FAUNCE [PM 201].

COMMENTS: In his accounting of the passengers on the Mayflower Bradford included "Mr. Richard Warren, but his wife and children were left behind and came afterwards" [Bradford 442]. As of 1651, Bradford reported that "Mr. Richard Warren lived some four or five years and had his wife come over to him, by whom he had two sons before [he] died, and one of them is married and hath two children. So his increase is four. But he had five daughters more came over with his wife, who are all married and living, and have many children [Bradford 445-46].

Richard Warren was in the party that explored the outer cape in early December 1620 he was described as being of London [Mourt 32].

On 5 July 1635, Thomas Williams, servant of widow Warren, confessed that "there being some dissention between him and his dame, she, after other things, exhorted him to fear God & do his duty, he answered, he neither feared God, nor the devil" [PCR 1 :35]. He was reproved and released [PCR 1:35]. On 5 January 1635/6 widow Warren paid 30s. to Thomas Clarke for borrowing his boat, and although returning it to a place of usual safety, an extraordinary storm wrecked it [PCR 1:36]. On 3 June 1639 "Mr. Andrew Hellot" was ordered to pay Mrs. Warren 10s. to settle an account between them [PCR 7: 12].

BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE: In 1938 L. Effingham deforest published a thorough study of Richard Warren [Moore Anc 561-70]. In 1999 the Five Generations Project of the General Society of Mayflower Descendants published the first of three volumes of the descendants of Richard Warren, covering the first four generations, compiled by Robert S. Wakefield. The second and third volumes, covering the fifth-generation descendants, were published in 1999 and 2001. In 2003 Edward J. Davies published two articles that present the evidence for the marriage of Richard Warren and for some of his wife's family [TAG 78:81-86, 274-75].

The Pilgrim Migration: Immigrants to Plymouth Colony 1620-1633

Buy the print edition of The Pilgrim Migration: Immigrants to Plymouth Colony 1620-1633.


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BIRTH: No later than about 1575 based on marriage of daughter.

DEATH: Plymouth between 11 January 1620/1 and 10 April 1621 [Bradford 445].

MARRIAGE: By about 1600 __ __ she had probably died before 1620, and perhaps considerably earlier.

  1. ANNA, b. say 1600 m. Leiden (banns) 22 December 1618 [NS] Thomas Smith [MQ 40:117-19].
  2. JOHN, b. say 1602 (or later) came to Plymouth in 1620 in 1623 Plymouth land division granted [probably] one acre [PCR 12:4) in 1627 Plymouth cattle division listed as the thirteenth member of the second company [PCR 12:9] d. Plymouth in 1627 or soon after [Bradford 445].

COMMENTS: Bradford tells us that “John Crackston and his son John Crackston" were on the Mayflower in 1620, and in his 1651 accounting of the Mayflower passengers, Bradford noted that “John Crackston died in the first mortality, and about some five or six years after his son died, having lost himself in the woods his feet became frozen, which put him into a fever of which he died" [Bradford 442, 445). Crackstone signed the Mayflower Compact.

On 3 March 1639/40 "The Heirs of John Crackstone" were included in a list of the Purchasers or Oldcomers, who were to receive land [PCR 2: 1 77]. By 1652 this share of land had passed to William Bradford and William Bassett [MD 4:186].

In 1974 Robert S. Wakefield gathered all the evidence then available on John Crackstone (including all the items noted above) [MQ 40:117-19]. Since the marriage intention for Anna Crackstone, daughter of John, called her of Colchester, an extensive search was made in the records of that city. Although a few traces of the surname were found there, no firm connection was made with any Colchester records.

Wakefield noted that none of the baptismal records for children of a Thomas Smith in Leiden subsequent to 1618 appear to be for the Thomas Smith who married Anna Crackstone.

The Pilgrim Migration: Immigrants to Plymouth Colony 1620-1633

Buy the print edition of The Pilgrim Migration: Immigrants to Plymouth Colony 1620-1633.


Mayflower Plaque in Leiden - History

We know Mayflower Society members visit Plymouth, MA numerous times throughout their lives and each trip brings new discoveries about the Pilgrim story. To help you, here is a sample of area places you may want to explore.

Plymouth County

Mayflower Society House and Garden
The Mayflower Society House is an 18th-century period historic house museum operated by the General Society of Mayflower Descendants (GSMD). The mansion was originally built in 1754 by loyalist Edward Winslow, the great-grandson of Pilgrim Edward Winslow. The Society house’s history spans over three centuries, and contains many treasures.
4 Winslow Street, Plymouth, MA 02360

Pilgrim Hall Museum
Pilgrim Hall Museum is the oldest continuously operating public museum in the Unites States, having opened in 1824. The museum contains artifact collections, artwork, a library and archives. Prominent pieces include original Pilgrim era artifacts, such as the original Brewster Chair, a 1651 portrait of Edward Winslow (the only known contemporaneous Pilgrim portrait) and a portion of Plymouth Rock visitors are permitted to touch.
75 Court St., Plymouth, MA 02360

Plimoth Patuxet
Plimoth Patuxet, founded in 1947, is a living history museum that exhibits, through topography and reenactors, the original settlement of the Plymouth Colony established in the 17th century by the English Mayflower Pilgrims. The museum started with two English cottages and a fort on Plymouth’s historic waterfront. Since then, the Museum has grown to include Mayflower II, the English Village, the Wampanoag Homesite, the Hornblower Visitor Center, the Craft Center, the Maxwell and Nye Barns, and the Plimoth Grist Mill.
Plimoth Patuxet - 137 Warren Ave, Plymouth, MA 02360

Mayflower II

The Mayflower II, built in Devon England, is a replica of the 17th-century ship Mayflower that transported the Pilgrims to the New World.
MA-3A, Pilgrim Memorial State Park Pier, Plymouth, MA

Plimoth Grist Mill
Formerly known as the Jenney Grist Mill, the Plimoth Grist Mill is a working grist mill in downtown Plymouth. It is a reconstruction of the original 1636 mill, and was completed in 1970.
6 Spring Ln, Plymouth, MA

The Jenney Interpretive Center
The Jenney is dedicated to conveying the impact 51 Pilgrims have had on the founding and ongoing development of the United States and to the importance of passing the history of our country from generation to generation. The musuem offers walking tours of the Plymouth historic district and tours of the National Monument to the Forefathers. Educational programs cover topics such as the economics of the Pilgrims and the Pilgrim family. The house, built in 1749, houses a gift shop and three exhibits in the Interpretive Centre.
48 Summer St, Plymouth, MA

Located in Pilgrim Memorial State Park on the shore of Plymouth Harbor, Plymouth Rock is the world famous symbol of the courage and faith of the Pilgrims who founded the first New England colony in 1620.

National Monument to the Forefathers
The National monument to the Forefathers, formerly known as the Pilgrim Monument, commemorates the Mayflower Pilgrims. The monument is free to visit and open to the public year-round. Bring a picnic and enjoy the monuments expansive lawn.
Allerton Street, Plymouth, MA 02360

Cole's Hill, the sarcophagus, and statue of Massasoit


Cole’s Hill is a National Historic Landmark used by the Mayflower Pilgrims in Plymouth, MA in 1620 to bury their dead out of sight of the Native Americans. A number of memorials and monuments are on the hill including a statue of the Wampanoag sachem Massasoit and a granite sarcophagus erected by GSMD in 1920 which contains the skeletal remains believed to be those of the Mayflower settlers.
Cole’s Hill is located along Carver Street near the foot of Leyden Street and across the street from Plymouth Rock.

Burial Hill

Burial Hill is an historic cemetery or burying ground and the burial site of several Pilgrims. The cemetery was founded in the 17th century. There are grave markers and monuments for the following families: Bradford, Howland, Brewster, Cushman, Bartlett and Warren.
11 Lincoln St., Plymouth, MA 02360

Leyden Street, Plymouth
Originally named First Street, Leyden Street is a street in Plymouth, MA that was created in 1620 by the Pilgrims, and claims to be the oldest continuously habited street in the thirteen colonies of British North America. Governor William Bradford, Dr. Samuel Fuller, Peter Browne and other settlers owned lots on the road and assorted plaques are affixed on each residence to tell of their history.

The Jabez Howland House
The Jabez Howland House is an historic house museum that has been restored and decorated with 17th-century period furnishings. The oldest portion of this two-story wood frame house was built by Jacob Mitchell in 1667, and purchased by Jabez Howland, son of Mayflower Pilgrims John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley Howland. John and Elizabeth lived in the home with Jabez for a short time making it the only existing house in Plymouth where Pilgrims have actually lived.
33 Sandwich Street, Plymouth, MA 02360

Sacrifice Rock
Sacrifice Rock is an historic Native American site in the Pine Hills region of Plymouth, Massachusetts. Centuries before the arrival of English settlers in the area, generations of Wampanoag and other native people en route between Plymouth and points south and west placed offerings, perhaps a gesture of sacrifice, or to receive the blessing of safe passage, on Sacrifice Rock. It is owned by the Antiquarian Society.
394 Old Sandwich Road, Plymouth, MA

1677 Harlow Old Fort House
The Harlow Old Fort House is an historic First Period house in downtown Plymouth. Sergeant William Harlow built the house in 1677 using timbers from the Pilgrims’ original 1620-21 fort on Burial Hill. His house projects the Pilgrim home and way of life.
119 Sandwich St., Plymouth, MA


The Mayflower Meetinghouse (formerly National Pilgrim Memorial Meetinghouse) in Plymouth is used for worship services by the Unitarian Universalist church. It sits at the base of Burial Hill on town square off Leyden Street. Founded by the Pilgrims in 1620, the site hosts the oldest continuously operating ministry in the United States. It is known as the birthplace of religious freedom in America. The current Romanesque-style building was completed in 1899 and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014.
19 Town Square, Plymouth, MA 02360

Pilgrim John Howland’s Homestead Site and Plaque, Rocky Nook
The Pilgrim John Howland Society owns both the site of John Howland’s homestead where he and his wife Elizabeth lived from 1638-1672/3, and the site of Joseph Howland’s homestead across the road from his father’s house and farm. Both sites are marked with monuments, and have been the sites of multiple excavations.
Rocky Nook, Kingston, MA 02364

Legs of Myles Standish
12 ft. tall, 9-ton granite legs belong to the original Myles Standish statue funded back in 1876 by a group of local, cranberry-growing citizens. The original statue was 18-feet tall and had Standish holding a sword in one hand and the charter of the Colony in the other. In 1922, the statue was struck by lightning, destroying the top half. These legs were found in Quincy Quarry in the 1990’s. A replica of this statue currently stands in Duxbury, built five years after the original was hit.
They are now just off the road on route 58, just after Ocean Ave, but before the Hanson town line in Halifax, MA.

John and Priscilla Alden Family Sites
On the National Register of Historic Landmarks, the John and Priscilla Alden Family sites consist of two properties in Duxbury. The first property, the Alden Homestead Site, contains the archaeological remains of the house John Alden built c. 1630. The second property, the John Alden House, is a historic house museum that was purportedly home to John and Priscilla Alden, but by forensic analysis, judged to have been built around 1700, probably by John Alden’s grandson. The property has been under continuous ownership of the Alden Family and it is now managed by a family foundation.
105 Alden St., Duxbury, MA, 02332

Myles Standish Monument State Reservation, Myles Standish Statue and Monument

State-owned, this historic preservation and public recreation area is managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation with the focus being a 116-foot granite shaft topped by a statue of Captain Myles Standish. The tower has 125 steps, and yields views from the top of 19th-century lighthouses, Duxbury Beach, Plymouth Harbor, and the Blue Hills to the northwest.
Crescent St., Duxbury, MA, 02332

Myles Standish Burial Ground
Also know as the Old Burying ground, the Myles Standish Burial Ground is, according to the American Cemetery Association the oldest maintained cemetery in the United States. The 1.5-acre burying ground is the final resting place of several well-known Pilgrims, including Captain Myles Standish.
Chestnut St., Duxbury, MA, 02332

Cape Cod

Pilgrim Monument and Provincetown Museum

The Pilgrim Monument in Provincetown, Massachusetts, was built between 1907 and 1910 to commemorate the first landfall of the Pilgrims in 1620 and the signing in Provincetown Harbor of the Mayflower Compact. This 252-foot-7.5-inch-tall campanile is the tallest all-granite structure in the United States, and is part of the Provincetown Historic District. The Provincetown Museum is at the base of the monument. Its mission is to educate the public about the arrival of the Mayflower Pilgrims, the town’s rich maritime history, and the building of the monument.
High Pole Hill Rd., Provincetown, MA, 02657

Pilgrims’ First Landing Park
The Pilgrims’ first steps are commemorated with a plaque and a small park located in the middle of the rotary at the end of Commercial Street, appropriately called Pilgrims’ First Landing Park.
Commercial St., Provincetown, MA, 02657

Corn Hill Monument, Pilgrim Spring and Corn Hill Plaques
Having first arrived in Cape Cod, it was here that the Pilgrims drank their first fresh water and discovered a buried cache of Indian corn which provided their first food ashore. GSMD placed a granite marker commemorating the event atop Corn Hill. In 1920, a monument was erected at the bottom of the hill.
Corn Hill Rd., Truro, MA, 02666

First Encounter Beach
The beach’s name commemorates the “First Encounter” between the group of Pilgrims, led by Myles Standish and William Bradford, and the Nauset Tribe of the Wampanoags. A plaque commemorates this moment in history.
Samoset Rd., Eastham, MA, 02642

Aptucxet Trading Post Museum
The Aptucxet Trading Post is the oldest remains of a Pilgrim building and the first trading post in Massachusetts. It was founded by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony in 1627. The structure existing today is a replica erected on the original foundation, which was archaeologically excavated in the 1920s.
24 Aptucxet Rd., Bourne Village, Bourne, MA 02532

Boston

Brewster Islands, Brewster Islands plaque
The Brewster Islands consist of Greater Brewster, Middle Brewster, Little Brewster (on which stands the Boston Light, the oldest continuously used light station in the US – first lit on Sept. 14th, 1716!), and Outer Brewster. The plaque was a joint effort between GSMD and the Elder William Brewster Society. Located in Boston Harbor, a part of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area

Old King’s Chapel Burial Ground
Founded in 1630, this burial ground was the first cemetery in the city of Boston and is a site on the Freedom Trail. From 1630-1660 it was Boston’s only burial site. John and Mary (Chilton) Winslow are buried here. John was a brother to Pilgrim Edward Winslow and arrived in America on the Fortune. He married Mary, the daughter of Pilgrims James and Susanna Chilton. A legend passed through the Chilton family suggests that Pilgrim Mary Chilton was the first Englishwoman to step ashore in New England.
13 Freedom Trail, Boston, MA 02108


Further Reading

Edward Arber (1897) The story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1606-1623 A.D (as told by themselves, their friends, and their enemies). London: Ward & Downey Co.

Douglas Anderson (2003) William Bradford’s books: Of Plimmoth Plantation and the printed word. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

R.C. Anderson (1995) The great migration begins: immigrants to New England, 1620-1633. Vol. 1. Boston, MA: New England Historic Genealogical Society.

Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs (2009) Strangers and pilgrims, travellers and sojourners: Leiden and the foundations of Plymouth Plantation. Plymouth, MA: General Society of Mayflower Descendants.

Charles Edward Banks (1962) The English ancestry and homes of the Pilgrim Fathers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. Originally published 1929.

William Bradford (1898) Bradford’s history “Of Plimoth Plantation.” From the original manuscript. With a report of the proceedings incident to the return of the manuscript to Massachusetts. Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co.

William Bradford (1908) Bradford’s history Of Plymouth Plantation, 1606-1646. Edited by William T. Davis. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

William Bradford (1912) History of Plymouth Plantation, 1620-1647. Vol. 1 & Vol. 2. Edited by W. C. Ford for the Massachusetts Historical Society. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Co. Massachusetts Historical Society.

William Bradford (1952) Of Plymouth Plantation 1620-1647. Edited by Samuel Eliot Morison. New York: Knopf.

William Bradford (1981) Of Plymouth Plantation 1620-1647: introduction by Francis Murphy. Modern Library College Editions ed. New York: Random House.

Nick Bunker (2010) Making haste from Babylon: the Mayflower Pilgrims and their world, a new history. London: Bodley Head.

H.M. Dexter & M. Dexter (1905) The England and Holland of the Pilgrims. Boston New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.

C. Foster (1921) Calendars of administrations in the Consistory Court of Lincoln, A.D.1540-1659. Publications of the Lincoln Record Society: Vol. 16. Horncastle: W.K. Morton & Sons.

M. Greengrass (2014) Christendom destroyed: Europe 1517-1648. London: Allen Lane.

Alexander Mackennal & H.E. Lewis (1920) Homes and haunts of the Pilgrim Fathers. Edited by H. Elvet Lewis. London: Religious Tract Society.

R.A. Marchant (1960) The Puritans and the church courts in the Diocese of York, 1560-1642. London: Longmans.

R.A. Marchant (1969) The Church under the law: justice, administration and discipline in the Diocese of York, 1560-1640. London: Cambridge University Press.

D. Marcombe (1993) English Small Town Life: Retford 1520-1642. Nottingham: Dept. of Adult Education, University of Nottingham.

E.A. Stratton (1986) Plymouth colony: its history and people 1620-1691. Salt Lake City, UT: Ancestry Publishing.

J. Tammel (1989) The Pilgrims and other people from the British Isles in Leiden, 1576-1640. Peel, Isle of Man: Mansk-Svenska Publishing Co.

A. Taylor (2001) American colonies: the settling of North America. New York London: Penguin.

University of Nottingham (1598) AN/PB 292/7/46. Churchwarden presentment, Scrooby, Retford deanery, 27.4.1598.

G. Willison (1945) Saints and strangers. Orleans, MA: Parnassus Imprints.

[1] According to Willison, 1983, 437.

[2] According to Willison, 1983, 437.

[3] Stratton, 1986, 249, cites Browne in NEHGR 83: 439, 84:5.

[4] Stratton (1986, 251) speculates on Brewster’s dates of birth/death.

[6] Stratton, 1986, 251 Bunker, 2010, 100.

[7] Stratton, 1986, 250-251: her father was possibly Thomas Wentworth (citing Burgess, 1920, 80) Tammel, 1989, 297.

[8] Stratton, 1986, 405 Tammel, 1989, 297.

[9] Stratton, 1986, 250: born 12 August 1593 Tammel, 1989, 299-301.

[12] After Anderson’s transcription, 2003.

[13] Stratton, 1986, 405: ‘Kathrine’ 259: cites Ford on her death – see ‘John Carver’ Tammel, 1989, 297.

[14] Stratton, 1986, 270 Tammel, 1989, 297.

[23] Bangs, 2009, 38 Bunker, 2010, 102-103.

[26] University of Nottingham Presentment Bill AN/PB 292/7/46, 1598.

[27] Bangs, 2009, 15: the Millenary Petition (1603), citing Gee and Hardy, 1896, and Jordan, 1936.

[28] Bangs, 2009, 18-20 citing Barlow’s history published in Cardwell, in Porter.


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